Non-petroleum-based fuels and lubricants include those produced from sources other than crude oil. These include traditional alternative fuels such as natural gas or ethanol, as well as other transportation fuels such as Fischer-Tropsch diesel and biodiesel made from natural gas or other non-petroleum feedstocks.
Current U.S. Department of Energy efforts in this area include identifying fuels and fuel-blending components that are suitable for advanced-combustion-regime engines, which have the potential to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. These fuels and fuel components will likely come from non-fossil sources such as biomass, vegetable oils, and waste animal fats, as well as from fossil sources other than light, sweet crude oil — for example, natural gas, heavy crude, tar (oil) sands, oil shale, and coal.
Renewable Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels
Researchers have identified options for replacing some of the petroleum fuels used in transportation vehicles with fuels made from domestic renewable sources. Such biomass-derived fuels can be made from a variety of organic materials: trees, plants and associated residues; plant fiber; poultry litter and other animal wastes; industrial waste; and the paper component of municipal solid waste.